Findings in 2014 –2015
In early 2014, the People's Republic of China, Japan and the Republic of Korea
reported outbreaks of novel Eurasian (EA) H5N8-reassortant clade 220.127.116.11viruses in migratory birds and domestic poultry.
This H5N8 lineage of viruses has been characterized as highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry (HPAI) and to date has not been reported to cause disease in humans or other mammalian species.
By November 2014, there were multiple reports of the H5N8 clade 18.104.22.168 in wild birds
from South Korea, Japan, Russia, Germany, Netherlands, and North America.
In several countries, the same viruses caused outbreaks in poultry
Findings in 2016
In 2016, cases of a new H5N8 reassortant were reported in wild birds in March in Republic of Korea; in June in Russia; in November in India; in ten countries of Europe (Austria, Croatia, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Switzerland, Sweden, Finland and Netherlands) and two countries in the middle east (Israel and Iran) in November.
Affected domestic animals include
chickens,(Gallus domesticus), Kotikana, kyckling
ducks, (Anatidae, Anseriformes), Ankkalintuja, andfåglar
turkeys, (Meleagris gallopavo), Kalkkuna,Kalkon ;
and wild bird species include
common pochard (Aythya ferina),Punasotka, Brunand, Taffeland
tufted duck (Aythya fuligula) Tukkasotka, Vigg, Troldand
swans (Cygnus sp.), Joutsenlaji
gull (Laridae sp.), Lokkilaji
common coot (Fulica atra), Nokikana, Sothöna,Blishöne
storks (Ciconiidae sp.),Kattohaikaralaji, stork
greyheron (Ardea cinerea), Harmaahaikara, Gråhäger, Fiskehejre
great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus), Silkkiuikku, Skäggdopping, Toppet lappedykker
black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus), Naurulokki, Skrattmås, Haettemåge
common tern (Sterna hirundo), Kalatiira, Fisktärna, Fjordterne
great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Merimetso, Storskarv, Skarv
painted stork (Mycteria leucocephala),( Intian ibishaikara),Indisk ibisstork, Indisk Skovstork, Buntstorch
pelican (Pelecanus sp.), Pelikaanilaji, pelikanart, pelikan
munia bird (Lonchura), Loistopeipot manikit (Lonchura), en smuk lille finkeagtig fugl, Estrildid Finch, Prachtfink
crow (Corvus sp.),Varislintulaji , kråkfågelart, Kragefugle
common buzzard (Buteo buteo), Hiirihaukka, Ormvråk, Musvåge
common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), Telkkä, Knipa, Hvinand
little grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis), Pikku-uikku, Smådopping, Lille lappedykker
common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), Liejukana, Rörhöna, Groenbenet roerhoene
yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis),Etelänharmaalokki ((Aroharmaalokin alalaji), Medelhavstrut , Middelhavsmåge
peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus),Muuttohaukka, Pilgrimsfalk, Vandrefalk
been goose (Anser fabalis), Metsähanhi, Sädgås,Saedgås
and other wild duckspecies (Anatidae sp.), Villiankkalajeja, vilda andfåglar,
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6, a related virus that is also in the clade 22.214.171.124
that was previously found in China, Vietnam and Laos, was found for the first time in
Republic of Korea and Japan from dead wild birds, captive animals (Japan only) and
poultry (Korea only). It should be noted that this group of H5N6 viruses has been associated with human infection,including a number of deaths.
Further information regarding circulation of the EA-H5N8clade 126.96.36.199 and subsequent
reassortants will further improve understanding of the epidemiology for these unique
Countries are urged to share findings from surveillance activities that can help fill in these gaps.
Wild Bird Movements
The majority of wild bird migration across Europe, Africa and Asia subsides in November
for the winter season. While wintering locations of these migratory birds are
often stable, additional movement within a region may be affected by local weather
conditions, food resources, access to open water, etc.
Strategic wild-bird surveillance planning and enhanced messaging to poultry farmers to
strengthen biosecurity practices before spring migration is warranted, especially if the
virus persists over the winter in Europe, North America, and EastAsia.
Detections in indoor poultry farms where direct contact with wild birds has been considered negligible emphasizes indirect transmission to these production sectors
from contaminated environments via fomites or by air, further highlighting the ability of these viruses to persist in the natural environments.
Wild bird surveillance
In general, ongoing wild bird surveillance for avian influenza viruses is
encouraged and may help fill gaps in knowledge about circulating
Based upon recent events, OFFLU recommends continuing and strengthening
targeted wild bird surveillance activities in areas where EA-H5 clade 188.8.131.52 viruses
have been detected and in other areas where there are significant populations of migratory waterfowl.
Currently these areas include Asia, Europe, Africa and the Middle East.
Best practice guidelines established by FAO and OFFLU, including the
FAO’s Manual on Wild Bird Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Surveillance
and the OFFLU Strategy document for surveillance and monitoring of influenzas in animals
can be consulted to aid in surveillance strategiesand techniques.
There are several real-time RT-PCR protocols available for detection of EA-H5 clade 184.108.40.206 viruses and other avian influenzaviruses.
Muistiin 11.1.2017 OIE lähteestä . Etsin suomalaista, ruotsalaista ja tanskalaista linnun nimen vastinetta engl. ja latinalaisen lisäksi.